Ahmose I

who drove the hyksos out of egypt

The princes of Thebes now ruled over Ahmose I, who had expelled the Hyksos. The battle against the Hyksos had cost Ahmose his father Seqenenre II and brother Kahmose their lives within three years of each other, making him the successor to the kingdom at a young age. His mother, the illustrious Queen Aahotep, was a significant figure in the nation and may have served as co-regent with him during his early years in power.

Pharaoh Ahmose I slaying a probable Hyksos. Detail of a ceremonial axe in the name of Ahmose I, treasure of Queen Ahhotep II. Luxor Museum1

The Power

After expelling the Hyksos, Ahmose I was faced with the task of consolidating Egypt’s borders, which he did with a series of rapid campaigns that sealed the Syrian border and brought Nubia (Kush) to heal There must also have been much to do domestically. Ahmose seem to have devolved a great deal of the responsibility on to local governors in the nomes.


Ahmose I (1549–1524 BC), who restored a divided Egypt around 1550 B.C. and ushered in the famed New Kingdom, is revered by Egyptians.

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Dagger of Ahmose I, Luxor Museum

Conquest of the Hyksos

He began the conquest of Lower Egypt held by the Hyksos in the 11th year of Khamudi’s reign, but the exact chronology of events is debatable. Reconstructing the events of the conquest prior to the siege of Avaris, the Hyksos capital, is extremely difficult. Almost what we know comes from a short but important military commentary on the back of the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, which is made up of brief diary entries, one of which states. While this regnal year date was formerly considered to correlate to Ahmose, it is now understood to allude to Ahmose’s Hyksos rival Khamudi, because Ahmose is referred to as ‘Prince of the South’ rather than king or pharaoh in the Rhind papyrus text. Photo Source

When he attacked the Delta, the Rhind Papyrus depicts elements of his military tactics. At July, he arrived in Heliopolis and proceeded down the eastern delta to Tjaru, the important frontier stronghold on the Horus Road, the road connecting Egypt and Canaan, in October, completely bypassing Avaris. He cut off all travel between Canaan and Avaris by capturing Tjaru. This seems he was contemplating a blockade of Avaris, isolating the Hyksos capital from Canaan aid and supplies.

Cartouche of Ahmose I on the dagger pommel, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto

Ahmose I conducted three raids against Avaris, the Hyksos capital, but he also had to put down a minor insurrection in Egypt’s south. He then seized the city in his fourth attack. After a three-year siege, he concluded his triumph against the Hyksos by seizing their fortress Sharuhen near Gaza. At the absolute least, He would have conquered Avaris by the 18th or 19th year of his reign. “A graffito in the quarry at Tura wherein ‘oxen from Canaan’ were employed during the inauguration of the quarry in Ahmose’s regnal year 22,” according to “a graffito in the quarry at Tura.”

Ahmose I

Ahmose I built a loyal government in Egypt when his boundaries were secured, and he awarded estates to outstanding veterans of his conquests and members of the royal family. As shown by inscriptions detailing the usage of cedar found in Syria and the beautiful jewellery from his reign, he revived the copper mines in Sinai and restarted commerce with the towns of the Syrian coast. At Abydos, he rebuilt abandoned temples and built chapels for his family.

Ahmose I

Death Of Ahmose I

The mummy of Ahmose I was discovered in the Deir el-Bahri Cache in the hills just above Hatshepsut’s Mortuary Temple in 1881. He was buried among the mummies of Amenhotep IThutmose I, Thutmose II, Thutmose IIIRamesses ISeti IRamesses II, and Ramesses IX, all from the 18th and 19th dynasties.

Ahmose I

Gaston Maspero uncovered Ahmose I’s mummy on June 9, 1886. It was discovered in a coffin with his name inscribed in hieroglyphic script, and his name was also written in hieratic script on his bandages. While the style of the cedarwood coffin dates it to the 18th dynasty, it was neither royal in style nor craftsmanship, and any gold or inlays may have been removed in antiquity.


What did Ahmose accomplish?

Ahmose I restored Theban sovereignty over Egypt as a whole, ushering in a new period in Egyptian civilisation and preparing the way for the mighty New Country pharaohs who would extend the kingdom and leave an unparalleled architectural legacy.

When did Ahmose I rule?

Egypt was in a state of upheaval when Ahmose I (c1549–1525 BC) became pharaoh. By the time Ahmose I died, he had freed his people and founded the new Egyptian kingdom.

How did Ahmose become king of all Egypt?

Ahmose completed the conquest and expulsion of the Hyksos from the Nile Delta, restored Theban rule over the whole of Egypt and successfully reasserted Egyptian power in its formerly subject territories of Nubia and Canaan.

What was Ahmose like as a leader?

Ahmose I restored Thebes to its former status as the country’s capital. Commanders who have diligently served the monarch were promoted to royal officials or governors. Ahmose I also reclaimed control of Egypt’s southern adversary.

How were the Hyksos expelled from Egypt?

Pharaoh Ahmose of the 18th Dynasty vanquished and banished the Hyksos from Egypt.

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